It has long been reported that Westerners have a more independent and autonomous concept of the self than do East Asians. For example, when asked to write twenty statements beginning with the words "I am ...," Americans are likely to list their own internal psychological characteristics (happy, outgoing, interested in jazz), whereas East Asians are more likely to list their roles and relationships (a son, a husband, an employee of Fujitsu
Now, as we rapidly approach the era of self-driving cars-a technological and social paradigm shift that almost every expert expects will rapidly reduce car crashes-we need to confront an important question: Where will the organs come from?
Extremely difficult but specific objectives (e.g., a spy plane flying at 85,000 feet with a range of 6,000 miles) and the freedom to take risks—and fail-define the heart of a Skunk Works operation. That means hiring generalists who are more open to nonconventional approaches than narrow specialists. A Skunk Works is allowed to be less profitable than other divisions in a corporation only if its projects are not financial backbreakers and are limited to producing about fifty units or so. Going "skunky" is a very practical way to take modest risks, provided that top management is willing to surrender oversight in exchange for a truly independent operation that can make everyone look good if its technology innovations really catch on, as with stealth. By keeping low overhead and modest investment, a Skunk Works failure is an acceptable research and development risk to top management
They operated under strict wartime secrecy, so that when he discovered that all available floor space in the Lockheed complex was taken for round-the-clock fighter and bomber production, that suited Johnson just fine. He rented a big circus tent and set up shop next to a noxious plastics factory, whose stench kept the curious at bay.
Around the time Kelly's crew raised their circus tent, cartoonist Al Capp introduced Injun Joe and his backwoods still into his "L'il Abner" comic strip. Ol' Joe tossed worn shoes and dead skunk into his smoldering vat to make "kickapoo joy juice." Capp named the outdoor still “the skonk works." The connection was apparent to those inside Kelly's circus tent forced to suffer the plastic factory's stink. One day, one of the engineers showed up for work wearing a civil defense gas mask as a gag, and a designer named Irv Culver picked up a ringing phone and announced, "Skonk Works”
Contemporary art shows present a good illustration of economists' concept of a negative price. Everyone who visits commercial galleries has played some version of the following game. Walk around the gallery with your partner and ask, “If we won the raffle and could take home any piece to hang, which would it be?” It is a great way to find out whether you share the same taste in art!
So then, how much would you pay not to have to take the raffle prize home and hang it? That is the idea of the negative price
Third on the list is Gustav Klimt's Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I, negotiated by Mark Porter of Christie's New York but sold privately. At a reported $135 million, the price was four and a half times the previous high for a Klimt. Until this sale, most art critics and historians would have ranked Klimt as a second-tier modern painter, and that is what his previous auction records suggested. The price illustrates the ease with which art history is now rewritten with a checkbook.
Even his advisor at Berkeley tried to dissuade him. “Don't work on this, because you can never tell the effects of a new idea on society,” he told his stubborn student. Instead of heeding the warning, Chaum dedicated his dissertation to him, saying it was the rejection of the advisor's thinking that motivated him to finish the work.
First, employees do often judge the success of the business at least in part on the external measure of valuation in a financing round. Second, even if that valuation looks great in the absolute sense (or in the relative sense, compared with your previous round of financing), employees are likely to compare it to other companies that have raised money recently, in many cases independent of whether those companies are relevant benchmarks. Third, never underestimate the value of always maintaining momentum in the business, one measure of which may be a successful financing round
the NSA had slapped a secrecy order on the “Phasorphone,” a voice-scrambline device created by a team of scientists led by thirty-five-year-old Seattle technician Carl Nicolai. Five months after applying for a patent for an invention that he hoped would make him a fortune, Nicolai was not only prevented from selling his invention, but also from even using it.
In June 1975, the NSF official in charge of monitoring such grants, Fred Weingarten, was warned that the NSA was the only government agency with the authority to fund research on cryptology. Weingarten was alarmed that he may have been breaking the law. So he held off awarding any new grants while he sought to clarify the matter.
What he found was interesting. Neither the NSF lawyers nor the National Security Agency itself, when pressed for documentation, could come up with any statutory justification for the agency's claim.
After all, Adleman thought, it wasn't as if this was a paper anyone would actually see. “I thought that this would be the least important paper my name would ever appear on," he recalls. So Adleman agreed to keep his name on it, if it were listed last. Meanwhile, Adi Shamir agreed with Adleman that Rivest's name should go first. This order determined the name of the algorithm itself: RSA