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My favorite, however, is the shredder. You take a paper bill— let's say $20-and slide it into the front of the clock at night. When the alarm goes off in the morning, you have a short amount of time to wake up and turn the alarm off before it begins shredding your money. The brilliant behavioral economist Dan Ariely has suggested an even more fiendish system wherein your alarm clock is connected, by Wi-Fi, to your bank account. For every second you remain asleep, the alarm clock will send $10 to a political organization... that you absolutely despise.
To successfully initiate sleep, as described in chapter 2, your core temperature needs to decrease by 2 to 3 degrees Fahrenheit, or about 1 degree Celsius. For this reason, you will always find it easier to fall asleep in a room that is too cold than too hot, since a room that is too cold is at least dragging your brain and body in the correct (downward) temperature direction for sleep.
Second, alcohol is one of the most powerful suppressors of sleep that we know of. When the body metabolizes alcohol it produs by-product chemicals called aldehydes and ketones. The aldehydes in particular will block the brain's ability to generate REM sleep. It's rather like the cerebral version of cardiac arrest, preventing the pulsating beat of brainwaves that otherwise power dream sleep. People consuming even moderate amounts of alcohol in the afternoon and/or evening are thus depriving themselves of dream sleep.
Selectively warming the feet and hands by just a small amount (1°F or about 0.5°C) caused a local swell of blood to these regions, thereby charming heat out of the body's core, where it had been trapped. The result of all this ingenuity: sleep took hold of the participants in a significantly shorter time, allowing them to fall asleep 20 percent faster than was usual, even though these were already young, healthy, fast-sleeping individuals. *
The need to dump heat from our extremities is also the reason that you may occasionally stick your hands and feet out from underneath the bedcovers at night due to your core becoming too hot, usually without your knowing. Should you have children, you've probably seen the same phenomenon when you check in on them late at night: arms and legs dangling out of the bed in amusing (and endearing) ways, so different from the neatly positioned limbs you placed beneath the sheets upon first tucking them into bed. The limb rebellion aids in keeping the body core cool, allowing it to fall and stay asleep.
Compared to reading a printed book, reading on an iPad suppressed melatonin release by over 50 percent at night. Indeed, iPad reading delayed the rise of melatonin by up to three hours, relative to the natural rise in these same individuals when reading a printed book. When reading on the iPad, their melatonin peak, and thus instruction to sleep, did not occur until the early-morning hours, rather than before midnight. Unsurprisingly, individuals took longer to fall asleep after iPad reading relative to print-copy reading.